Risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, general industry conditions and competition; general economic factors, including interest rate and currency exchange rate fluctuations; the impact of pharmaceutical industry regulation and healthcare legislation in the United States and internationally; global trends toward healthcare cost containment; technological advances, new products and patents attained by competitors; challenges inherent in new product development, including obtaining regulatory approval; the company’s ability to accurately predict future market conditions; manufacturing difficulties or delays; financial instability of international economies and sovereign risk; dependence on the effectiveness of the company’s patents and other protections for innovative products; and the exposure to litigation, including patent litigation, and/or regulatory actions.
Kaempferol is ingested as a glycoside , absorbed in the small intestine, usually by passive diffusion due to kaempferol’s lipophilicity, and metabolized in various areas of the body. In the small intestine, kaempferol is metabolized to glucuronides and sulfoconjugates by intestinal enzymes. It can also be metabolized by colon microflora which can hydrolyze the glycosides to aglycones or form simple phenolic compounds. These compounds can be absorbed or excreted. Kaempferol is also extensively metabolized in the liver to form glucurono-conjugated and sulfo-conjugated forms. These forms of kaempferol, and kaempferol itself, can then be excreted in urine. About % of kaempferol ingested is excreted as urine. Much of the rest of ingested kaempferol is present in the plasma and tissues in nanomolar concentrations.