Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
Laws and Penalties: Concerns over growing illegal AAS abuse by teenagers, and many of the just discussed long-term effects, led Congress in 1991 to place the whole AAS class of drugs into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Under this legislation, AAS are defined as any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to T (other than estrogens, progestins, and corticosteroids) that promotes muscle growth. The possession or sale of AAS without a valid prescription is illegal. Since 1991, simple possession of illegally obtained AAS carry a maximum penalty of one year in prison and a minimum $1,000 fine if this is an individual’s first drug offense. The maximum penalty for trafficking (selling or possessing enough to be suspected of selling) is five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 if this is the individual’s first felony drug offense. If this is the second felony drug offense, the maximum period of imprisonment and the maximum fine both double. While the above listed penalties are for federal offenses, individual states have also implemented fines and penalties for illegal use of AAS. State executive offices have also recognized the seriousness of AAS abuse and other drugs of abuse in schools. For example, the State of Virginia enacted a law that will allow student drug testing as a legitimate school drug prevention program (48, 49).
1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (calcitriol); 1,25(OH)(2)D; 18kDa translocator protein; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A; 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD; ACAT; ACTH; ANT; CRAC; Cholesterol side chain cleavage; Cholesterol transport; ER; FAD; HDL; HMGCoA; HSL; IMM; IMS; Km; LAL; LDL; LH; MENTAL; MENTHO; MLN64; MLN64 N-terminal; MLN64 N-terminal domain homologue; Michaelis constant; NADPH; NPC; Niemann Pick type C; OMM; Outer mitochondrial membrane; P450scc; PAP7; PBR; PCP; PKA; PKAR1A; PRAX1; PTH; SF1; SOAT; SR-B1; SREBPs; START; StAR; StAR-related lipid transfer domain; Steroidogenesis; Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; TSPO; TSPO-associated protein 1; TSPO-associated protein 7 (ACBD3); VDAC1; Vitamin D; acyl transferase; adenine nucleotide transporter; adrenocorticotropic hormone; cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus domain; endoplasmic reticulum; flavin adenine dinucleotide; high density lipoproteis; hormone-sensitive neutral lipase; inner mitochondrial membrane; intramembranous space; low-density lipoproteins; luteinizing hormone; lysosomal acid lipase; metastatic lymph node clone 64; mitochondrial cytochrome P450 specific for cholesterol side-chain cleavage; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; outer mitochondrial membrane; parathyroid hormone; peripheral benzodiazepine receptor; phosphate carrier protein; protein kinase A; protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1α; scavenger receptor B1; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; steroidogenic factor 1; sterol O-acetyltransferase; sterol regulatory element binding proteins; voltage-dependent anion channel