Muscle atrophy caused by steroids

The efficiency of human muscle has been measured (in the context of rowing and cycling ) at 18% to 26%. The efficiency is defined as the ratio of mechanical work output to the total metabolic cost, as can be calculated from oxygen consumption. This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from food energy , losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch). For an overall efficiency of 20 percent, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to kcal per hour. For example, one manufacturer of rowing equipment calibrates its rowing ergometer to count burned calories as equal to four times the actual mechanical work, plus 300 kcal per hour, [16] this amounts to about 20 percent efficiency at 250 watts of mechanical output. The mechanical energy output of a cyclic contraction can depend upon many factors, including activation timing, muscle strain trajectory, and rates of force rise & decay. These can be synthesized experimentally using work loop analysis .

One of the most commonly asked questions here at Stimrx is “What is the difference between TENS and EMS?” Most people assume that TENS and EMS are similar enough to be interchangeable. StimRx wants to make sure you know the differences in the two, and the importance of when to use each of the modes with our equipment. Both TENS and EMS devices use a power supply, lead wires and identical electrodes to supply the electrical impulses to the body. However, their purpose is quite different. Most machines offer both TENS and EMS programs to choose from. You can select not... read more

Regarding diagnosis:

  • Has individual become inactive? Does individual have a sedentary job?
  • Does individual have any diseases that affect nerves supplying the muscles?
  • Does individual have diseases of the muscle itself?
  • Does individual have a systemic illness?
  • Was individual using or abusing drugs such as opiates, steroids, or alcohol?
  • Did individual wear a cast or experience other immobilization?
  • Does individual complain of loss of strength and muscle fatigue?
  • What muscles are affected? Is there a pattern to the symptoms?
  • On exam, was lack of muscle tone and weakness noted?
  • Were limb circumference measurements done?
  • Were sensation and reflexes diminished, absent, or normal?
  • Were EMG and muscle biopsy done?
  • Was MRI necessary?
  • Were conditions with similar symptoms ruled out?
  • Is there a family history of muscle atrophy in the particular location?
Regarding treatment:
  • Is individual exercising regularly or enrolled in a physical therapy program?
  • Was transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) administered, if appropriate?
  • Was low-voltage electromuscular stimulation (EMS) needed?
  • Was bracing necessary?
  • Were anabolic steroids administered, if appropriate?
Regarding prognosis:
  • Is individual continuing to participate in a home exercise program?
  • Is individual's employer able to accommodate any necessary restrictions?
  • Does individual have any conditions that may affect the ability to recover?
  • Does individual’s muscular atrophy cause mechanical strain affecting other muscles or joints?
Source: Medical Disability Advisor

EA stimulation was administrated at three pairs of acupuncture points, including two pairs of Governor Vessel acupoints: (1) GV9 ( Zhiyang ) and GV6 ( Jizhong ) points; (2) GV2 ( Yaoshu ) and GV1 ( Changqiang ) points); and two ST36 ( Zusanli ) points in the hindlimbs (Figure 2 ). The location of Governor Vessel acupoints followed that previously described [ 33 ]. The ST36 is 5 mm beneath the capitulum fibulae and is located laterally and posterior to the knee joint [ 34 , 35 ]. The rats were kept in a specially designed restraint equipment without anesthesia such that they remained in a recumbent position during the EA treatment. Stainless acupuncture needles ( mm in diameter, 50 mm in length; Jiangsu Medical Instruments Inc., China) were inserted at a depth of 5 mm [ 16 ] into the four Governor Vessel acupoints, and needles ( mm in diameter, 13 mm in length) were inserted at a depth of 3 mm [ 36 ] into the bilateral ST36 points. The three pairs of needles were connected to the output terminals of an EA apparatus (model number G 6805-2, Shanghai Medical Electronic Apparatus Company, China), and EA was applied using alternating strings of dense-sparse waves at alternating frequencies (60 Hz for  s and 2 Hz for  s, pulse width  ms). The intensity was adjusted to induce slight twitching of the hindlimbs (≤1 mA), and each treatment lasted 20 min. EA treatment was given once every other day for 4 weeks and started on the third day postsurgery.

Muscle atrophy caused by steroids

muscle atrophy caused by steroids

EA stimulation was administrated at three pairs of acupuncture points, including two pairs of Governor Vessel acupoints: (1) GV9 ( Zhiyang ) and GV6 ( Jizhong ) points; (2) GV2 ( Yaoshu ) and GV1 ( Changqiang ) points); and two ST36 ( Zusanli ) points in the hindlimbs (Figure 2 ). The location of Governor Vessel acupoints followed that previously described [ 33 ]. The ST36 is 5 mm beneath the capitulum fibulae and is located laterally and posterior to the knee joint [ 34 , 35 ]. The rats were kept in a specially designed restraint equipment without anesthesia such that they remained in a recumbent position during the EA treatment. Stainless acupuncture needles ( mm in diameter, 50 mm in length; Jiangsu Medical Instruments Inc., China) were inserted at a depth of 5 mm [ 16 ] into the four Governor Vessel acupoints, and needles ( mm in diameter, 13 mm in length) were inserted at a depth of 3 mm [ 36 ] into the bilateral ST36 points. The three pairs of needles were connected to the output terminals of an EA apparatus (model number G 6805-2, Shanghai Medical Electronic Apparatus Company, China), and EA was applied using alternating strings of dense-sparse waves at alternating frequencies (60 Hz for  s and 2 Hz for  s, pulse width  ms). The intensity was adjusted to induce slight twitching of the hindlimbs (≤1 mA), and each treatment lasted 20 min. EA treatment was given once every other day for 4 weeks and started on the third day postsurgery.

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