Endocrinology steroid hormones

Clinical endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system, its function, and its diseases or abnormalities as related to patient care. In other words, a clinical endocrinologist would spend most of his/her time seeing patients who have one or more disorders of the endocrine system. The endocrine system can be defined as those organs in the body which release hormones that regulate many of the body’s functions, like the testes and ovaries, the pancreas, the pituitary gland , and the thyroid gland. Those who specialize in clinical endocrinology are highly trained physicians. Additional conditions, on which clinical endocrinology concentrates, include thyroid disorders , which may have significant effect on all body functions when ignored. Hormone disorders of other types can be treated by endocrinologists. Problems with estrogen of progesterone production in the female body could cause many symptoms like reduced fertility .

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [37] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [38] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] :10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [38]

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

Endocrinology steroid hormones

endocrinology steroid hormones


endocrinology steroid hormonesendocrinology steroid hormonesendocrinology steroid hormonesendocrinology steroid hormonesendocrinology steroid hormones